Effect of neck muscle strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation on the kinematic response of the head to impulsive loads

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses: In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (ΔV) and peak angular velocity (Δω) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, ΔV and Δω will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head ΔV and Δω. Results: Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head ΔV and Δω after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-576
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume42
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2014

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Neck Muscles
Muscle Strength
Biomechanical Phenomena
Muscles
Neck
Athletes
Braces
Sports
Linear Models
Pediatrics

Keywords

  • head injuries/concussion
  • head kinematics
  • injury biomechanics
  • neck muscle activation
  • neck strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Effect of neck muscle strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation on the kinematic response of the head to impulsive loads",
abstract = "Background: Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. Hypotheses: In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (ΔV) and peak angular velocity (Δω) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, ΔV and Δω will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head ΔV and Δω. Results: Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head ΔV and Δω after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P",
keywords = "head injuries/concussion, head kinematics, injury biomechanics, neck muscle activation, neck strength",
author = "Eckner, {James T.} and Oh, {Youkeun K.} and Joshi, {Monica S.} and Richardson, {James K.} and Ashton-Miller, {James A.}",
year = "2014",
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AU - Richardson,James K.

AU - Ashton-Miller,James A.

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